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Les Grands Projets Québécois - Les Raffineries de Montréal-Est
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Description Documentaire québécois. Si l’exploitation pétrolière canadienne est désormais associée à l’Alberta, il reste que le milieu du XXe siècle a vu Montréal devenir le plus important centre de raffinage de l’est de l’Amérique du Nord. Favorisé par un réseau de transport maritime à proximité, un sol argileux relativement imperméable et de vastes terrains vacants, Montréal-Est est choisi pour accueillir six raffineries. Le pétrole brut vient d’abord par bateau, essentiellement de l’Arabie Saoudite et du Venezuela, puis, en 1941, de Portland (É.-U.) via des oléoducs. La crise du pétrole de 1973, la suppression de la ligne Borden (qui répartissait l’approvisionnement entre l’Alberta et l’étranger suivant la rivière des Outaouais) et les développements hydroélectriques contribuent à la quasi-extinction de ce secteur économique de Montréal, dont ne subsistent que deux raffineries pétrochimiques. Ce sont les plus vieilles installations de raffinage pétrolier du Canada, datant de 1913. Royal Dutch Shell raffinait 161 000 barils de pétrole par jour, Petro-Canada en raffine 160 000. À Montréal-Est, il s’est déjà raffiné 400 000 barils de pétroles par jour environ. À cause de cette forte concentration d’industries polluantes, la qualité de l’air est la pire de toute l’île de Montréal et du Québec. Il ne reste plus de raffineries du Canada dans cette municipalité. Dans le dossier de la raffinerie de Montréal-Est de la pétrolière Shell Canada Limitée, la compagnie a reçu l’autorisation de la ministre Nathalie Normandeau de convertir la raffinerie en terminal le 27 juin 2011. Un comité de survie a été mis en place avec les trois paliers de gouvernements, les syndicats nationaux et les organismes de développement économique et la ville de Montreal-est pour trouver un nouveau propriétaire et opérateur pour la raffinerie. Les compagnies Esso, Irving, Suncor et Olco ont été considérés comme étant des acheteurs possibles pour la vente de la raffinerie, mais la transaction ne fut pas possible. La compagnie Shell a alors décidé d’arrêter ses opérations de raffinage le 7 octobre 2010 et importer les produits finis des marchés mondiaux ou des autres raffineries de Shell ailleurs dans le monde. Cette décision fait référence à la vision du nouveau président de RDS des pays-bas de raffiner le pétrole sur place depuis 2009 dans un contexte mondial très compétitif où les coûts de la main d’œuvre est moins chère, et avec l’apparition des méga raffineries ailleurs dans le monde et des conditions moins exigeantes au niveau environnemental, économique et social.

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